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History 101

After the Roman Empire...

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After the Roman Empire
The Modern World

The Rise of Monarchies and Nations

Viking Ship Exploring North Seas by 700-1000 C.E.
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Mayan Temple
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Itza, Mexico circa 750 to 1200 C.E.

South America
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The Crusades (1095 to 1272 CE)
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A series of religion-driven military campaigns waged by much of Christian Europe

The Crusader
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Mongols led by Genghis Khan
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Mongolian Empire (1206 - 1368 CE)
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Marco Polo (1254-1324)
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Probably the most famous Westerner traveled on the Silk Road.

The Silk Road
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Chinese Ship (Junk)
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Native Americans
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Mistakenly labeled as "Indians" of India by Europeans; explorers thought they have reached Asia.

Native American Map
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Native American Canoes
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Native American Boats
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Portuguese Caravela
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Portuguese Empire (1415-1999)
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The Portuguese empire (1415-1999) was the first and the last of the empires of western Europe. It sold black pepper from the Spice Islands and black men from Africa. It helped to spread the Catholic faith, especially to Africa and Asia, and made Portuguese a language spoken by more people than French. The empire gave birth to Brazil, Angola, Mozambique and other countries.

Searching for a new route to Asia...

Cristopher Columbus - Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria
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Monarchial Nation States 1500-1700 (Castles)
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Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521)
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Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was a Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition that sailed around the Earth (1519-1522). It proved beyond all scholastic doubts that the earth is in fact round.

 

Magellan's Expedition
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Crossing the Pacific (Peaceful) Ocean
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The Boxer Codex
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Pre-Christian Cebuanos in Pigafetta's Eyes
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On Saturday, March 17, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan's ship came across an archipelago unknown to the Western world. He docked off the coast of what is now known as the island of Samar. On March 18, he made the acquaintance of Rajah Kolambu, the chief of Samar, as well as Rajah Humabon, the chief of Cebu. He converted them to Catholicism and a short-lived Spanish allegiance. Rajah Humabon, anxious to take advantage of this new situation, convinced Magellan to agree to conquer Mactan Island on April 26, and offer it to the Rajah as a token of friendship.

Lapu-Lapu believed that Humabon had stolen the land of his father, Datu Mangal. Armed with their kampilan (long, dual-pointed cutlass), sibat (spears), sinugba sa apoy (sticks hardened in fire), and kalasag (protective shields), Lapu-Lapu's mandirigma (warriors) repelled these invaders, killing Magellan in the low tide that forced him into a hand-to-hand battle instead of a ship-based bombardment of the island.

Lapu-Lapu (Caliph Pulaka) (1491-1542)
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A Muslim chieftain on Mactan

Magellan's Route
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Spanish Galleon
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Spanish Empire
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Sultan Othman I, Founder of the Ottoman Empire
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Ottoman Empire
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Vienna, Austria
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Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico in 1531
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A "Lady from Heaven" appeared to a humble Native American, Juan Diego. The tilma shown to a bishop.

British Ship
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British Empire
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The Panama Canal
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Shorter route for ships travelling from Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean and v.v.

The Message at Fátima, Portugal in 1917
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Apparition of the Virgin Mary on the 13th day of six consecutive months in 1917, starting on 13 May.

Fatima Children
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Lucia, Francisco, and Jacinta

World War I
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The Camel

Russian Revolution 1917
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The Red October

Poland, February 22, 1931
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Sr. Faustina saw a vision of Jesus who told her to paint His image.

Holocaust of World War II
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Auschwitz

War Planes in 1942
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World War II Pacific Theater
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Japan's Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

U.S.M.C. War Memorial
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Battle of Iwo Jima

August 6, 1945
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USA dropped the world's first atomic bomb and marked the end of World War II

The United Nations
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Officially came into existence on 24 October 1945

May 14, 1948-The creation of the State of Israel
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After much debate and discussion, the UN recommended the partition of Palestine (Arab & Jewish).

The Arab-Israeli War (May 1948 - March 1949)
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More Church Buildings and Artifacts

England
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St. Martin Church since 597 CE

East Asia (China)
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The oldest Christian Church near Xi'an, China, built in 638 CE

England
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All Hallows Church since 675CE

Spain
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Church of La Merced

Ireland
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St. Audoens Church since 1190 CE

Ireland
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St. Audoens Church

St. Thomas Cross, India
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Unlike crosses in other traditions, the St Thomas Cross does not carry the effigy of the Christ.

In 1547, a thorough excavation discovers a stone cross with ancient `Sassanid Pahlavi` inscriptions on it. The cross, presumed to have been chiselled by the apostle himself. It became popular as the `Bleeding Cross` as it has bloodstains, which resurface still after being scratched off. It is also supposed to `bleed` afresh on a periodical basis. It first `bled` openly in front of public during Mass in 1558 and the last record of its bleeding was in the year 1704. After its discovery, the cross was placed on the wall of the church`s altar, which it embellishes still today.

San Thome Basilica, Chennai, India
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Completion in 16th century

San Thome (Interior)
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Madrid, Spain
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Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales since 16th century

Madrid, Spain
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Former medieval palace converted into a monastery by Philip II's sister Juana

Madrid, Spain
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Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial since 1530

Madrid, Spain
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Philip II commissioned this monastery

Madrid, Spain
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Envisioned as a monastic fortress against the distractions of the secular world

Burial place for Spanish kings
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The world's best example of the religious devotion of Renaissance Spain

Spain
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A ceiling in a chapel

Magellan's Cross in Sugbu (now Cebu), Philippines
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The baptism into the Catholic religion of chief Rajah Humabon and followers on April 21, 1521

Magellan's Cross now stands at a small chapel located across Cebu City Hall and along Magallanes Street. The street is named after Magellan, Magallanes being the Spanish translation of the Portuguese explorer's name. A sign below the cross says the original Magellan's Cross is encased in the tindalo wood cross displayed in the center of the chapel. This is to protect it from people who chipped away parts of the cross believing it has miraculous powers or as souvenirs. Some, however, say that the original cross planted by Magellan was destroyed or lost and what stands there now is a replacement planted by Spaniards who came after the Portuguese explorer.

Cebu, Philippines
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Magellan's Cross Kiosk

St. Basil's Cathedral, Russia
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Commissioned by Ivan the Terrible and built on the edge of Red Square between 1555 and 1561

Victory, a feast day (Intercession of the Virgin)
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Built to commemorate Ivan the Terrible's successful military campaign against the Tartar Mongols

St. Basil's Cathedral, Russia
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Architectural representation of the New Jerusalem - the Heavenly Kingdom in the Book of Revelation

Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines
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Baclayon Church built during Spanish occupation in the late 16th century

Baclayon Church, Tagbilaran, Bohol
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The oldest Catholic stone church building in the Philippines

Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines
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Baclayon Church Interior

Manila, Philippines
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San Agustin Church in Intramuros since 1570

San Agustin Church (Interior)
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Survived and rebuilt after the previous wars.

Intramuros, Philippines
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San Agustin Church Interior

Intramuros, Philippines
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San Agustin Church Museum

Manila Cathedral, Philippines
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Manila Cathedral since 1581 (church 1571)

Batangas, Philippines
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Taal Basilica since 1575, rebuilt in 1865 (biggest Catholic church in Asia)

New Mexico, USA
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San Miguel Chapel since 1610

New Mexico, USA
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San Miguel Chapel since 1610

Cebu, Philippines
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Basilica Minore del Santo Nino since 1739

Dome in front of the Naga Cathedral
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Naga Cathedral since 1816

Naga, Philippines
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Old Peñafrancia

Naga, Philippines
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Ceiling of Peñafrancia Church

Bamboo Organ of Las Piñas, Philippines
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Parish Church of St. Joseph since 1819

Japan
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National Treasure, Oura Tenshu-do in Nagasaki was built in 1864

Built in 1864, the oldest Christian church in Japan,  to serve Nagasaki's foreign community. Soon after its completion, a group of Japanese visited and identified themselves as kakure-kurishitan, "Christians-in-hiding," who had been secretly practicing their faith in nearby Urakami for almost 250 years.

Helsinki, Finland
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Panorama of Uspensky Cathedral

Helsinki, Finland
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Uspensky Cathedral since 1868

Constructed of a red brick in the Russian-Byzantine style with elements of the western architecture. Its 13 golden cupolas or onion domes representing Christ and the 12 apostles. The largest orthodox Cathedral in the western and northern Europe.

Helsinki, Finland
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Helsinki, Finland
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Helsinki, Finland
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Pampanga, Philippines
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Apalit Church since 1883

San Sebastian Church, Manila, Philippines
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The only prefabricated all-steel church in Asia (since 1891).

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